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INDEX Brain Upgrade Neurotechnology Medical Dictionary Brain Facts How 1 to 10

INDEX Brain Upgrade|Neurotechnology| Medical Dictionary|How 1 to 10

The oldest practiced medical art.

They've been doing it longer than you think.

Brain surgery is perhaps the oldest of the practiced medical arts. No hard evidence exists suggesting a beginning of other facets of medicine such as pharmacology - using drugs as well as natural ingredients to help a fellow human being. There is ample evidence, however, of brain surgery dating back to the Neolithic (late-Stone Age) period. The remains of successful brain operations, as well as surgical implements, were found in France, and the success rate was remarkable, even circa 7000 BC. But the evidence is not limited to Europe. Pre-Incan civilizations used brain surgery as an extensive practice as early as 2000 BC.

Brain surgery was also used for spiritual and magical reasons; often the pratice was limited to kings, priests, and nobility. Surgical tools were made of bronze and obsidian. Also, in Africa, there is evidence of brain surgery as early as 3000 BC. Ancient Egyptian civilations contributed important notations on the nervous system.

The Greek, Hippocrates, was the father of modern medical ethics. Born on the Aegean island of Cosin in 470 BC, he was familiar with clinical signs of head injuries, fractures, spasms, and depressions. His texts were still in good shape two thousand years after his death in 360 BC. Ancient Rome also had a brain surgeon star. In the first century AD, Aulus Cornelius Celsus operated on depressed skull fractures and described symptoms of brain injury in detail.

Asia had many talented brain surgeons: Galenus of Pergamon, born in Turkey, and physicians of Byzantium, who worked from AD 800 to AD 1200. There was an Islamic School of Brain Surgery, and one of its students was Abu Bekr Muhammed El Razi, who lived from AD 852 to AD 932, became one of the greatest Islamic brain surgeons.

Another great one, Abu Iqluasim Khalaf, was a great influence on Western brain surgery. The Christian brain surgeons of the Middle Ages were clerics, educated and familiar with medical literature as well as brain surgery.

I think that brain surgery changed history because it lets doctors help people with brain diseases and injuries lead normal lives and even saves some people from death. It also helps people learn more about the brain and how it works.

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