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Cognitive control signals are found in areas of the frontal and parietal cortices that are related to sensory-motor integration. These areas are involved in transforming sensory inputs into plans for action and are specialized for different movements.
For example, within the intraparietal sulcus of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) there are areas specialized for planning eye movements (the lateral intraparietal area, LIP), reaching movements of the arm (the parietal reach region, PRR) and grasping movements of the hand (the anterior intraparietal area, AIP).
Similar areas also exist in the frontal cortex, namely the frontal eye fields for eye movements and the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex (PMd and PMv) for arm and hand movements.
Motor signals coexist with cognitive signals in these areas, so it is not the location of the recordings that distinguishes cognitive prosthetics from motor prosthetics. Instead, it is the type of information being decoded and how it is used to help patients.
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